The question in the title of this article would seem difficult for new colleagues who study the history of terrorism in Indonesia started in the 1980s. Will be increasingly difficult for those who only studied since the 1990s, and will be increasingly more difficult again if we only see it from the phenomenon of bomb attacks since 2000 were noted to occur about 20 more cases of terrorist bombings. But of course, we wonder why? Only Indonesiakah who experienced it? the answer is no, because the Philippines and Thailand also experienced repeated bomb attacks. What about Malaysia, Singapore and other ASEAN countries? Different characteristics of each country led to the growth of terrorist groups is also different. But in general the countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Singapore have entered the radar of terrorist organizations in the name of Islam by forming Mantiqi-Mantiqi.
Compared to neighboring countries, Indonesia has roots far deeper history-related Islamic militant groups. We are not fanatics here translated as something positive or negative, but understood as a totality of a person's psychological state in the philosophy and principles of life that negates the other effects. This is a state of religious fanatics or al-ta'ashubud diiniyyu which finally led to the emergence of an extreme point of the attitudes and behaviors that looked beyond himself and his group is kafir (yakfuru).
In Muslim there is nothing wrong with the attitude of negating the other, since the beginning of the principles it teaches there is no God but Allah, a basic principle of tawhid is understood universally mandatory for all streams in Islam. But apparently it's not just the religious worship of God, but also do good to the environment and our fellow beings, so it is also the world touch the social, economic and political. The most crucial point is to do with politics and power. , Referring to the struggle of the Prophet, the Companions and the Islamic caliphate in the past, of course, very natural that later emerged the ideology of political struggle and military power to bring back the Islamic government in the world. The argument is without power, Islam has not ditagakkan on this earth, so that the developing doctrine includes the obligation to uphold Islam Islamic jihad establish that the real power to regulate public life (political power).
The fight then reopen the pages of history fight theocracy and the secular state (democracy). History of the world recorded a whopping various world religions such as Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism in the race for control of the country which is the regulator of the community. Post-powers (regional-global) Ottoman Turkey, the Islamic world back to areas smaller countries. Occurred a number of models in Middle Eastern countries such as family dynasty collaboration with Wahhabist doctrine (Saudi Arabia), growth of secularism and the creation of resistance cells to fight Islamic state in various countries.
Islam was introduced in Indonesia since the 11th century where even the oldest records from the era Singsari kingdom in Java in 1082 AD (thought to be the tomb of the notes to the Muslim Arab origin). In 1292 AD, has no historical record of Marcopolo news about Muslims are large in Aceh, while the kingdom of Pasai is the first Islamic kingdom archipelago. In the 14-15 century AD, is the rise of Islam Nusantara kekuatasn and early collapse of the Hindu-Buddhist kingdom, Islam in the archipelago is getting stronger because of the arrival of Islam to the archipelago is a unique phenomenon because it truly peace through education, culture and a touch occurs cultural accommodation gave birth to a typical Indonesian Islamic syncretism. Peace Islam is the hallmark of Islam in Indonesia, which does not use a sword in dissemination. Character of Indonesian Islam is Peace in Western Nations final change as the 15th century AD entered the archipelago. Seeing the growing reality of Islam in the archipelago, there was the first Muslim-Christian conflict in the archipelago due to the influence of the Crusades that occurred in other parts of the world (the Middle East and Europe).
History of Islamic kingdoms of the struggle against colonial archipelago in the name of Christianity with Gospelnya is the first of its historical roots in the unconscious majority of Indonesian Muslims are always suspicious of Western powers. After all, we are the children and grandchildren's people not earlier?
Nusantara Islamic empire destroyed and colonized the archipelago for 350 years, but the history of the resistance occurs everywhere and all elements of the Indonesian struggle with all existing capabilities. Post-destruction Islamic kingdoms archipelago, the struggle for independence does not happen on a national scale, but locally, where the local communities the power interfaith, inter-ethnic against the Dutch colonialists.
The destruction of Muslim political power does not destroy the joints of Muslims who had been entrenched for several hundred years before the arrival of the Dutch.
In short, until the birth of the Indonesian nationalist movement in the early 20th century, the Indonesian independence struggle for independence reached the finalization stage. Groups that exist in the national struggle include various elements of inter-religious nation, ethnic nationalities, political and ideological views. Political Islam is dominant, and the color also varied. Jakarta Charter is evidence of the political history of Indonesia, where the dominance of the Islamists is so strong at the time of preparation for independence. However, due to the belief that the best option for the people of Indonesia is the basic principle of Indonesian nationalism, the charter does not apply as well jakarta removed and transformed into the nuances of its Islamic ideology.
Post-event victory of the principles of Indonesian nationalism, some Muslims are very disappointed. Even elements of military fighters of Islam (Army of Islam) then drafting the Darul Islam and the Islamic State of Indonesia (DI / NII) in West Java in 1949 with the leadership of SM Kartosuwirjo, and in Aceh in 1953 with the leadership of David Beureuh. Besides the resistance element for the formation of the Islamic Army of the Republic of Indonesia, is also developing elements of Islamic "jihad" (the amount in his late 70s) and supporting elements of Islamic law Masjumi party who destroyed the Sukarno government. In the New Order era since 1965, the Indonesian government to conduct policy approach to violent militarism destroys latent radical left (communism) and the radical right (Islam). This has sharpened hurt Indonesian community groups who are in the category of the radical right and the left, so that they all go into the nursery cells are getting louder. Pesantren Ngruki (1972) who built Abu Bakar Bashir is just one of the other schools who also teaches jihad, but this can not be generalized into the world of terrorism.
Blog II research into terrorist organizations, it is known that the behavior of suicide bombings is not taught in schools, it happens in the resistance movement against the government considered infidels. Thing in the modern history refers to the pattern of the strategy adopted by the group Hezbollah in Lebanon. It is considered successful scare opponents, but then reduced by the West (the U.S. and its allies) as international terrorism. So imaging heroism suicide bombing Hezbollah turned into a cowardly terrorist act.
Indonesia has historically been known as suicide bombings in Aceh when the Dutch Aceh as Moord. And all of us will certainly respect the most heroic actions in the history of Indonesian independence in 1945 by Muhammad Toha in South London with an ammunition depot blew himself up in order weaken the power of the Netherlands, which became known as the "Bandung Ocean of Fire." That is, we do not 'll never mentions Muhammad Toha action as cowardly is not it? would otherwise pay their respects and prayers, and we recognize the heroism Muhammad Toha.
Similarly, the movement of modern terrorism in Indonesia, the group considers the action as a noble act, which is contrary to the common view that we see it as an act of contempt. (Consider the case of Bandung lake of fire, and absorb how our own feelings).
Ah ha ... I went back to talk here and there but have not answered why terrorist groups operating in Indonesia?
The answer is in our hearts and there in front of our own eyes, which is as follows:
- History of the struggle of our nation who do not fear death still exist within us, so if there is a part of the Indonesian nation has the character of resistance is not afraid of death is a natural thing. This quality is not owned by neighboring countries that gained independence from colonial powers easily free kind.
- Peace Muslim majority Indonesia since the 11th century AD has a silent character and only react when the event occurs to disturb the peace, so it takes a long time to raise awareness of the existence of a handful of Muslims who use violent means to achieve their goals.
- The majority of Indonesian Muslims carry the unconscious historical strong suspicion against Western intervention in the war, as happened in the Indonesian archipelago and the Crusades in the world, so it would be hard to believe when there is hurt a fellow Muslim, let alone terrorism.
- That Indonesia is a very fertile land yan for the birth of the radical right (official version) due to misdirected policy of repression of the New Order government. In the reform era, there has been a dialogue in which the improvement of the various elements of the nation so as to achieve a more equitable situation in the future. In the fertile land for 40 million of our people are still poor, while corruption is still rampant, of course, if there among peers Blog II who commit suicide bombings in the centers of the Indonesian national corruption will be a hero instead?
- Indonesia new start healthier communication in the past 10 years, previously suffering and pain are not communicated, it is the history of Indonesian Human Rights is very bad. Indonesian man suffered many injustices, including in terms of legal protection and fair treatment. Note the difference in the fate of the Bali bombing bomber obtain judicial process and a more balanced coverage compared to the founders of DI / NII disappear or die somewhere. Necessary to develop a mechanism for better communication in the discourse of Indonesian national character with the rest of the elements, and it is the duty of the government. It also occurs in the case of both separatism in the former province of East Timor, Aceh, Maluku and Papua.
- Acts of terror in Indonesia is relatively easy because of the security forces, particularly the installation of security both general and special place has poor discipline. This needs to be reformed to increase the welfare and use of prevention tools and supervision of a more modern, such as in neighboring Singapore and Malaysia.
- I may say that all elements of the Indonesian terrorist is the original made in the country, which is a continuation of the history of the elements that I mentioned above. International event is a catalyst element that strengthens and accelerates the growth of terrorist groups. For example, experience "jihad" in Afghanistan and the southern Philippines, communications with Al Qaeda, the radical Wahhabist elements and elements of Salafi jihad or military movement Muslim Brotherhood.
- I some times have revealed the possibility of "puppet master" which refers to Western nations, for instance with the case of Omar Faruq awkwardness or strangeness of Afghanistan history that is still colored by armed conflict, as well as on the situation in Iraq and Lebanon. His background could have advanced weapons test the West, the Islamic terrorist labeling efforts, as well as conspiracy to divert world attention from the real global problem. But until now, it is very difficult for us to collect the facts that can be used to prove it, but it looks pretty convincing analysis. For this last note, I leave to fellow Blog II, consider this as an intellectual exercise in improving our understanding of national security issues in Indonesia.
Are the things mentioned above causes of terrorist groups operating in Indonesia? of course there is one more record is no less important or even the most important of all, especially the phenomenon ness. Namely the terrorists as well as the majority of Indonesian people to think locally and act locally anyway, think locally and act locally also. Why is that? because of very weak knowledge on an international scale, making it easier to operate in Indonesia, it is also the underlying actions of Malaysian citizens in acts of terror in Indonesia.
Hopefully with a variety of security and safety improvements sectors of the Indonesian people, as well as the professionalism of the security forces, there will be no terror to intimidate the peace of Indonesia.
Source: http://intelindonesia.blogspot.com/2009/09/mengapa-kelompok-teroris-beroperasi-di.html , Friday, September 18, 2009. Translate by Yohanes Gitoyo.