Terrorism is coordinated attacks aimed at generating feelings of terror against a group of people.
The term terrorist by counterterrorism experts said referring to the perpetrators who are not members of the armed forces are known or did not follow the rules armed forces.
Terrorism The word comes from the French le Terreur which was originally used to refer to government actions that use the results of the French Revolution and excessive violence brutally beheaded by 40,000 people accused of anti-government activities. Furthermore Terrorism word is used to refer to violent anti-government movement in Russia. Thus the word terrorism from the beginning used to refer to acts of violence by the government and anti-government activities.
According to the 1937 UN Convention, all forms of terrorism are criminal acts directed against the state with the intention of creating a form of terror against certain people or groups of people or the general public.
According to Webster's New World College Dictionary (1996), the definition of terrorism is "the use of force or threats to demoralize, Intimidate, and subjugate." Doctrine distinguishes terrorism into two kinds of definitions, namely:
- definition of terrorist acts (terrorism act), acts of terrorism activities
- definition of terrorism (terrorism actor), perpetrators of acts of terrorism
It was agreed by most experts that the measures classified into terrorism measures are actions that have elements:
- political goals
- terror / intended audience.
According to Black's Law Dictionary, terrorism is an activity that involves an element of violence or which cause harmful effects to human life in violation of criminal law (American or U.S. state), which is clearly intended to:
- intimidate the civilian population.
- influence government policy.
- affect the administration of the state by way of kidnapping or murder.
According to the Armed Forces - Army, based on the Anti-Terrorism Bujuknik 2000, terrorism is a way of thinking and acting that uses terror as a technique to achieve the goal.
According to the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 15 of 2003 on Combating Criminal Acts of Terrorism, Chapter I General Provisions, Article 1, paragraph 1, Terrorism is any act that satisfies the elements of a crime in accordance with the provisions of this Act. Regarding what actions are categorized into Crimes of Terrorism, subject to the provisions in Chapter III (Terrorism), Articles 6, 7, that any person convicted for committing Terrorism, if:
- By deliberately using violence or threats of violence create an atmosphere of terror or fear of the widespread or causing mass casualties, by depriving of freedom or eliminate the life and property of others or result in damage or destruction to vital objects strategic or environmental life or public facilities or international facilities (Article 6).
- By deliberately using violence or threats of violence intended to create an atmosphere of terror or fear of the widespread or causing mass casualties, by depriving of freedom or eliminate the life and property of others or result in damage to or destruction of the objects of vital strategic or to the environment or public facilities or international facilities (Section 7).
And someone also considered a Crime of Terrorism, under the provisions of Article 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 of Law No. 15 of 2003 on Combating Criminal Acts of Terrorism. Of the many definitions proposed by many parties, which is characteristic of a Crime of Terrorism is:
- A plan to implement those actions.
- Performed by a particular group.
- Using violence.
- Taking casualties from the civil society, with the intent to intimidate governments.
- Done to achieve the fulfillment of the specific purpose of the perpetrator, which may include social motives, political or religious.
Muladi (former Menkumham Republic Indonesia) gave notes to this definition, that the nature of terrorism act containing acts of violence or threats of violence the political character. Terrorism more clearly a scourge for modern civilization. Nature of the action, actors, strategic goals, motivation, and achieve the expected results, targets and methods of terrorism is increasingly broad and varied. So it became clear that terror is not a usual destructive form of violent crime, it is a crime against the peace and security of mankind (crimes against peace and security of mankind).
According Muladi Terrorism can be categorized as per se or mala mala in se, classified as a crime against the conscience (Crimes against conscience), became something evil is not as regulated or prohibited by law, but because it is basically wrong classified as natural or acts mala is not wrong in Themselves prohibita belonging to such crimes as stipulated by the Act.
Academic definition of terrorism can not be harmonized legal definition. Even the United States who have a lot of act (law) that mention the word terrorism or terrorist in it, until now still have not been able to provide a standard definition of terrorism, both academically and judicially.
So far, Terrorism can only be categorized as a crime under international law if it meets the criteria specified in 12 multilateral conventions relating to terrorism, namely:
- Convention on Offenses and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft ("Tokyo Convention", 1963).
- Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft ("Hague Convention", 1970).
- Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation ("Montreal Convention", 1971).
- Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes Against Persons internationally Protecred, 1973.
- International Convention Against the Taking hostages og ("hostages Convention", 1979).
- Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material ("Nuclear Materials Convention", 1980).
- Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, supplementary to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, 1988.
- Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, 1988.
- Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf, 1988.
- Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection, 1991.
- International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombing (1997, United Nations General Assembly Resolution).
- International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, 1999.
History of Terrorism.
History of Terrorism evolved since centuries past, characterized by a form of pure evil in the form of killings and threats aimed at achieving a particular goal. Its development began in the form of cult fanaticism which then turned into a murder, whether committed by individuals or by a group to be considered as a tyrant ruler. The murder of these individuals can already be regarded as a pure form of terrorism by referring to the history of modern terrorism.
Although the new term starts Terror and Terrorism popular 18th century, but the phenomenon is not new projecting. According to Grant Wardlaw in the book Political Terrorism (1982), Terrorism systematic manifestations appear before the French Revolution, but the new striking since the second half the 19th century. Supplements issued in dictionary French Academy in 1798, terrorism is defined as a system over terror regime.
Terrorism emerged in the late 19th century and leading up to World War-I, occurs in almost all parts of the world. In the mid-19th century, began much done Terrorism in Western Europe, Russia and America. They believe that terrorism is the most effective way to conduct a political and social revolution, by killing influential people. History records in the 1890s Armenian terrorism against the Turkish government, which ended in disaster massacres against Armenians in World War I. In that decade, acts of terrorism identified as part of a movement-based left-wing ideology.
The first form of terrorism, occurred before the Second World War, Terrorism done by political assassinations against government officials.
The second form of terrorism began in Algeria in the '50s, performed by the FLN who popularized "random attack" against innocent civilians. This was done to counter the so-called state terrorism by the Algerian Nationalist. Killings carried out in order to get justice.
The third form of terrorism emerged in the 60s and known by the term "Media Terrorism", in the form of random attacks against anyone for publicity purposes. The third form evolved through three sources, namely:
- the historical tendency against colonialism and the growth of democratic movements and human rights.
- ideological shift that includes the rise of fundamentalist religion, radical after the Vietnam War era and the emergence of the idea of urban guerrilla warfare.
- advances in technology, the discovery of sophisticated weapons and increased traffic.
However, this form of terrorism is considered less effective in a society where it's mostly illiterate and apathetic. Cry or struggle through writing has very little impact. Would more effectively implement "the philosophy of the bomb" that is explosive and hard to ignore.
After World War II, the world has never known "peace". Various turbulence develops and lasts continuously. Superpower confrontation escalate into conflict East - West and drag some Third World countries into it causing conflict North - South. Struggle against colonialism, racial unrest, regional conflicts which attract third-party intervention, domestic upheaval in many Third World countries, to make the world unstable and turbulent.
Instability of the world and the frustration of many developing countries in the struggle demanding the rights that are considered fundamental and legitimate, opportunities arise and spread terrorism. The phenomenon of terrorism increased since the beginning of the decade of the '70s. Terrorism and the Terror has evolved in:
- ideological disputes,
- religious fanaticism,
- struggle for independence,
- even by the government as a way and means of enforcing his authority.
Perpetrators of terrorism.
Of acts could be piracy, hijacking and hostage-taking. Perpetrators may be:
In addition to individual actors, terrorism can be carried out by the state, known as state terrorism (state terrorism). For example, as suggested by Noam Chomsky who said the United States into that category. The issue of double standards always color range of any mention of who started the West. Such as the United States had much to terrorist groups in the world, on the other hand the media coverage suggests the fact that the United States commit terrible acts of terrorism to violate the agreed conventions.
While the results of which are expected to terrorism activities are:
- the emergence of a sense of fear,
- radical changes in the political,
- Human Rights demands,
- basic freedom for an innocent party and other political demands satisfaction.
Unlike the war, acts of terrorism are not subject to the procedures of the execution time of war like always sudden and random targets and casualties are often civilians.
Terrorism also implies that attacking terrorist acts carried out inhuman and has no justification, and therefore the perpetrators ("terrorists") deserve a cruel revenge.
As a result of the negative meanings contained by the word "terrorist" and "terrorism", the terrorists typically describe themselves as:
- freedom fighters,
- mujahideen, and others.
But the justification in the eyes of terrorism: "The true meaning of jihad, mujahideen is far from acts of terrorism against civilians when they are not involved in the war". Though Terrorism itself is often looked at the name of religion.
Terrorism and the Terror has evolved in a dispute over ideology, religious fanaticism, the struggle for independence, rebellion, guerrilla, even by the government as a way and means of enforcing his authority. Terrorist activity contains several characteristics:
- there is very terrible casualties maximization.
- desire to get coverage in the international media as quickly as possible.
- Nobody ever made a claim against terrorism that has been done.
- Terrorism attack was never to be expected because the goal is the same as the breadth of the whole earth.
Authors: Yohanes Gitoyo.