Minggu, 18 Agustus 2013

Indonesian War of Independence 1945-1949



The Indonesian National Revolution or Indonesian War of Independence was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between Indonesia and the Dutch Empire, and an internal social revolution. It took place between Indonesia's declaration of independence in 1945 and the Netherlands' recognition of Indonesia's independence in 1949.

One of the largest revolutions of the twentieth century, the struggle lasted for over four years and involved sporadic but bloody armed conflict, internal Indonesian political and communal upheavals, and two major international diplomatic interventions. Dutch forces were not able to prevail over the Indonesians, but were strong enough to resist being expelled. Although Dutch forces could control the towns and cities in Republican heartlands on Java and Sumatra, they could not control villages and the countryside. Thus, the Republic of Indonesia ultimately prevailed as much through international diplomacy as it did through Indonesian determination in the armed conflicts on Java and other islands.

The revolution destroyed the colonial administration of the Dutch East Indies which had ruled from the other side of the world. It also significantly changed racial castes, as well as reducing the power of many of the local rulers (raja). It did not significantly improve the economic or political fortune of the majority of the population, though a few Indonesians were able to gain a larger role in commerce.


Background.

In accordance with the Vienna treaty in 1942, the allies agreed to restore the territories now occupied by the Japanese in their respective colonies owner when the Japanese were driven from the area of ​​occupation.

Towards the end of the war, in 1945, some parts of Indonesia has been dominated by allied troops. Australian army unit had landed troops in Makassar and Banjarmasin, Balikpapan, while Australia has been occupied by Japan declared surrender before defeat. While Morotai Island and West Irian jointly controlled by units of the Australian and United States troops under the command of General Douglas MacArthur, Commander of Southwest Asia (South West Pacific Area Command / SWPAC).

After the war, the Australian Army responsible for Kalimantan and eastern Indonesia, the Philippines and the United States dominate the British army in the form of command SEAC (South East Asia Command) is responsible for India, Burma, Ceylon, Malaya, Sumatra, Java, and Indochina. SEAC with the commander of Lord Mountbatten as Supreme Allied Command in charge of Southeast Asia Tentera disarm the Japanese troops and take care of the return of prisoners of war and civilian detainees allies (Recovered Allied Prisoners of War and Internees / RAPWI).


Dutch landing represented NICA

By Civil Affairs Agreement, on August 23, 1945 English with Dutch troops landed in Sabang, Aceh. 15 September 1945, British troops arrive as Allied representative in Jakarta, accompanied by Dr. Charles van der Plas, the Dutch representative to the Allies. The presence of the Allied armies, diboncengi NICA (Netherland Indies Civil Administration - Dutch civil administration), led by Dr. Hubertus J van Mook, he prepared to open negotiations on the basis of radio speech 1942 Queen Wilhelmina (statkundige concepti or conception of the state), but he announced that he would not talk to Soekarno who he considers has teamed up with the Japanese. Queen Wilhemina's speech confirms that in the future will be formed a commonwealth that among its members are the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies, under the leadership of the Dutch queen.


The battle against the Allies and NICA.

There are many battles that occurred at the time of entry of the Allies and NICA to Indonesia, who was recently declared its independence.

Battles that occur include: (click the link for readmore)
  1. November 10 incident, in Surabaya and surrounding.
  2. Palagan.Ambarawa Theater, in the area Ambarawa, Semarang and surrounding areas.
  3. Guerrilla Struggle General Sudirman, covering Central Java and East Java
  4. Bandung Ocean of Fire, in Bandung and the surrounding area.
  5. Battle of Medan Area, Medan and surrounding area.
  6. Margarana battle, in Bali
  7. General Offensive March 1, 1949, in Yogyakarta
  8. Battle of Five Days Five Nights, in Palembang
  9. Battle of Five Days, in Semarang
To find out more history of the war of independence of Indonesia from the year 1945-1949, please read the following link:
  1. http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sejarah_Indonesia_(1945–1949) 
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesian_National_Revolution
  3. http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politionele_acties
  4. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niederländisch-Indonesischer_Krieg
  5. http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Révolution_indonésienne
  6. http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolución_indonesia

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