Jumat, 01 Maret 2013

Serangan Oemoem Jogjakarta, March 1, 1949 : Indonesia Still There!


Dutch Military Aggression II or occur on December 19, 1948 beginning with the attack on Yogyakarta, the capital of Indonesia at the time, and the capture of Sukarno, Mohammad Hatta, Sjahrir and some other figures. The fall of the nation's capital led to the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia in Sumatra led by Sjafruddin Prawiranegara. On the first day of the Dutch Military Aggression II, they were deployed troops Maguwo Air Base and from there headed to the capital of the Republic of Indonesia in Yogyakarta. The Cabinet held a hearing lightning. During the session it was decided that the leader of the country remains in a city so close to the Three Nation Commission (KTN) so diplomatic contacts can be held.

The Dutch army against the people of Indonesia, note their winning smiles against unarmed people.

The blitz began on December 18, 1948 at 23:30, the radio broadcast from Jakarta said that tomorrow morning the High Representative Dutch Crown, Dr. Beel, to give a speech that matters.

Meanwhile, General Spoor had many months to prepare a plan to instruct the military destruction of all Dutch troops in Java and Sumatra to launch attacks on Republicans. The operation was called "Operation Kraai ' (Operation Crow).

Dutch Military Aggression II December 19, 1948,
original documentation is not part of the movie!

2:00 am at the 1e-compgnie (the troops I) KST on parachutes Andir obtain them and start loading sixteenth transport aircraft, and at 3:30 made last briefing. 3:45 pm Major General Engles Andir arrived at the airport, followed by General Spoor 15 minutes later. He did an inspection and a brief speech. 4:20 pm KST elite troops under the command of Captain Eekhout boarded the plane at 4:30 and the first airplane takeoff Dakota. The route east toward Maguwo taken through the Indian Ocean. At 6:25 they received the news of the fighter pilots, that has jump zone can be used. At 6.45 paratroops parachuted in Maguwo start.

Along with attacks on airports Maguwo, the morning of December 19, 1948, WTM Beel speech on the radio and said that the Netherlands was no longer bound by the Renville Agreement. Raids on all the territory of the Republic of Java and Sumatra, including the attack on the capital of Indonesia, Yogyakarta, which was then known as the Dutch Military Aggression II had begun. Dutch military aggression consistent with calling this a "Police Action".

The attack against the capital of the Republic, beginning with the bombing of airfields Maguwo, in the morning. At 5:45 Maguwo airfield bombarded by bombs and gunfire Submachine 5 Mustang and Kittyhawk 9 aircraft.

Our fallen heroes on the battlefield

TNI defense Maguwo consists of only 150 people airbase defense forces with weapons are minimal, a few guns and a 12.7 anti-aircraft guns. Heavy weapons are in a state of disrepair. Defence bases only reinforced by a company of armed military. At 6:45, 15 Dakota aircraft dropping troops on the Dutch KST Maguwo. Maguwo battle only lasted about 25 minutes. At 7:10 Maguwo airport has fallen into the hands of the captain Eekhout. On the Republican side carrying 128 soldiers were killed, while at the attackers, none of the casualties.


KST Netherlands Army

Around 9:00, all 432 members of the troops have landed in Maguwo KST and 11.00, all power Fighter Group M as 2,600 people-including two battalions, 1,900 people, of the Brigade T-and its heavy firepower under the command of Colonel DRA Van Langen has collected Maguwo and began to move to Yogyakarta.

The attack on the city of Yogyakarta also began with the bombing and dropping paratroopers in the city. In other areas in Java, East Java, among others, reported that the attack has even been made since December 18 night.

Immediately after hearing the news that the Dutch army has begun its attack, Commander Soedirman issued a flash which was read on the radio on December 19, 1948 at 08:00.

Government Emergency

Map of Indonesia in 1948

Sudirman in sickness reporting to the President. Sudirman was accompanied by Colonel Simatupang, Commodore Suriadarma and dr. Suwondo, his personal physician. The Cabinet held a meeting from morning until noon. Feeling not invited, General Sudirman and other military officers waited outside the courtroom. After considering all the possibilities that can happen, the Indonesian Government finally decided not to leave the capital. On matters discussed and decisions taken adalam cabinet meeting on December 19, 1948. Since Soedirman still sick, trying to persuade the president to be living in the city, but declined Sudirman. Simatupang said the president and vice president should join the guerrilla. Laoh minister said that now turns out to be escorting troop no. So the President and Vice President had to stay in town in order to always be in touch with KTN as a UN representative. Once the product is sound, almost all present said the Minister, the President and the Vice President remained in the city.

In accordance with the plans that have been prepared by the Strategy Council, which is the basis of civil government will be established in Sumatra, the President and Vice President to make authorization letter addressed to Mr. Syafruddin Prawiranegara, Minister of Welfare, who was in Dublin. President and Vice President send a cable to Syafruddin Prawiranegara in Bukittinggi, that he was appointed while forming a cabinet and take over the central government. Syafruddin Government was then known as the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia. In addition, to maintain the possibility that Syafruddin failed to form a government in Sumatra, also made a letter to Ambassador to India, dr. Sudarsono, as well as embassy staff RI, L. N. Palar and Finance Minister Mr. A.A. Maramis who was in New Delhi.

Four Ministers in Java but are outside Yogyakarta that did not participate caught was Interior Minister, dr. Sukiman, Food Supplies Minister, Mr. I.J. Kasimo, and Youth Development Minister, Supeno, and Minister of Justice, Mr. Susanto. They do not know about the cabinet meeting on December 19, 1948, which decided a mandate to Mr. Syafrudin Prawiranegara to form emergency government in Bukittinggi, and if this can not be done, so that dr. Sudarsono, Mr. Maramis and L.N. Palar form the Exile Government of Republic of Indonesia in New Delhi, India.

On December 21, 1948, the fourth Ministerial meeting and the results communicated to all military governor I, II and III, all civilian Governor and Resident in Java, that the central government handed over to the third person of the Minister, the Minister of Interior, Minister of Justice, Minister of Transportation.

Exile leader of the Republic of Indonesia

Vice-President Sukarno and Hatta undergo exile.

At 7:00 pm on December 22, 1948 Colonel DRA van Langen had the leaders of the republic to go to Yogyakarta Airports to fly without a clear purpose. During the trip using a B-25 bomber owned Dutch air force, none knowing where the plane, the pilot knew where after opening the warrant in the fuselage, but not delivered to the leaders of the republic. After landing in the village of Dul ​​Pangkalpinang Airports (now Airport Depati Amir) the leaders of the new republic knew that they were exiled to the island of Bangka, but the entourage of President Soekarno, Sutan Sjahrir, and Foreign Minister Haji Agus Salim continued to fly again to Medan, Sumatra north, and then exiled to Brastagi and Parapat, while Drs. Moh. Hatta (Vice President), RS. Soerjadarma (Chief of Staff of the Air Force), MR. Assaat (Chairman KNIP) and MR. AG. Pringgodigdo (Secretary of State) descended on the village of Dul ​​Pangkalpinang airport and continue to be brought to the Bukit Nenas Menumbing with truckloads of soldiers escorted the Netherlands and in the Dutch special forces escort, Speciale Troepen Corps.


Sudirman Commander struggle against the Dutch and illness.

After that Soedirman leaving Yogyakarta to lead a guerrilla from out of town. Guerrilla trip for eight months taken approximately 1000 km in Central Java and East Java. Not infrequently Soedirman be stretchered or carried because it is in a state of ill. After moving from several villages Soedirman group returned to Yogyakarta on July 10, 1949.

Colonel A.H. Nasution, as Commander of the Army and Territory Javanese folk Totalitarian defense plan that became known as the Order Strategy No. 1 One of the main contents are: Task forces from federal areas are air wingate (infiltrate behind enemy lines) and form guerrilla pockets so that the entire island of Java will be an extensive guerrilla terrain.

One of the forces that have to do wingate is Siliwangi forces. On December 19, 1948 Siliwangi move troops from Central Java into enclaves that have been established in West Java. This trip is known as the Long March Siliwangi. Long journeys, crossing rivers, climbing mountains, down valleys, fighting hunger and fatigue overshadowed the danger of an enemy attack. Arriving in West Java they join the DI / TII because NII has proclaimed its independence in the territories occupied by the Dutch at the time, and eventually recorded history with uncertainty about this.

Seizing the State Capital Yogyakarta.

Approximately one month after the Dutch Military Aggression II launched in December 1948, the military began to develop strategies to perform the backlash against the Dutch troops that began with phone decides, destroying railroads, attacked the convoy of the Netherlands, as well as other acts of sabotage.

Netherlands had to multiply outposts along the major roads connecting the cities that have been occupied. This means that the strength of the Dutch troops scattered in small outposts throughout the area that is now the republican guerrilla terrain. In the circumstances the Dutch troops had dispersed, began military attacks against the Dutch.

Around the beginning of February 1948 on the border of East Java, Lieutenant Colonel. dr. Wiliater Hutagalung - which since September 1948 and was appointed Territorial Officers assigned to form the Setup guerrilla networks in the Division II and III - met with Commander Sudirman to report on the UN Security Council resolutions and Dutch rejection of the resolution and waging propaganda stating that the Republic Indonesia is no longer there. Through Radio Rimba Raya, Commander Sudirman also had heard the news. Sudirman Commander instructed to think about the steps to be taken in order to counter the propaganda of the Netherlands.

Hutagalung which form a network in the Division II and III, it can be always in touch with Commander Sudirman, and be a liaison between the Commander Sudirman with II Division Commander, Colonel Lake Winnipesaukee and Third Division Commander, Col.. Bambang Sugeng. In addition, as a lung specialist, at every opportunity, he also cared Commander Sudirman, who was suffering from lung disease. After descending the mountain, in September and October 1949, Hutagalung and the family lived in the house pavilion Commander Sudirman in (formerly) Jl. No. Widoro. 10, Yogyakarta.

Thought that was developed by Hutagalung, need to convince the international community, especially the United States and the United Kingdom, the Republic of Indonesia is still strong, there is a rule (the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia - PDRI), there is a military organization and no army. To prove this, it is to penetrate the insulation, must be held spectacular attacks, which can not be hidden by the Dutch, and to be known by UNCI (United Nations Commission for Indonesia) and foreign journalists to spread throughout the world. To convey to UNCI and foreign journalists that the Republic of Indonesia is still there, the boys needed the Indonesian National Army uniform, who can speak English, Dutch or French. Commander Sudirman approve the idea and instructed Hutagalung to coordinate the implementation of the idea with the Commander of Division II and III.

Lieutenant Colonel. dr. Hutagalung still a few days to help care for Great Commander Sudirman, before returning to his base in Mount Cleft. As per the task given by the Commander Sudirman, in the meeting Nearby Military and Civilian Leaders in the Military Governor III, which was held on February 18, 1949 at the headquarters of which is located on the slopes of Mount Cleft. In addition to the Military Governor / Chief of Division III Col. Bambang Sugeng, and Lt. Wiliater Hutagalung, also present Wehrkreis II Commander, Lieutenant Colonel. Sarbini Martodiharjo and helm civilian government, the Civil Governor, Mr. K.R.M.T. Wongsonegoro, Resident Banyumas R. Budiono, Resident Kedu Salamun, Regent Banjarnegara R. A. Sumitro Kolopaking and Regents Sangidi.

Lt. Col. Hutagalung Wiliater at that time as well as military governor III adviser to convey the idea that has been approved by the Commander Sudirman, and then discussed together are:

  1.  Attacks conducted simultaneously in all regions of the Third Division, which involves Wehrkreise I, II and III,
  2. All the potential military and civilians under military governor III,
  3.  Held a spectacular attack against a major city in the Division III,
  4. Should coordinate with Division II in order to obtain a greater effect,
  5. The attack must be known internationally, it is necessary to have the support of :
  • Deputy Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces to coordinate with radio transmitters owned by the Air Force and the Coordinator of the Central Government,
  • Pepolit Unit (Army Political Education) Ministry of Defence.

The main purpose of this plan is to demonstrate the existence of military and thus also indicate the existence of the Republic of Indonesia to the world. To demonstrate the existence of the military, the members UNCI, foreign journalists and military observers should see uniformed officers TNI.

After in-depth discussions, grand design proposed by Hutagalung approved, and specifically about the "spectacular attacks" against the major cities, Commander of Division III / III Col. Bambang Sugeng GM insists, that should be attacked is spectacular Yogyakarta.

Three important reasons put forward Bambang Sugeng to choose Yogyakarta as the main targets are:
  1. Yogyakarta is the capital of Indonesia, so it can be taken even if only for a few hours, will greatly affect Indonesia's struggle against the Dutch.
  2. The presence of many foreign journalists at Merdeka Hotel Yogyakarta, and is still a member of the delegation UNCI (KTN) and military observers from the United Nations.
  3. Directly below the region Division III / GM III so no need approval Commander / GM and all other forces to understand and master the situation / area of ​​operation.

In addition since issued orders dated January 1, 1949 Strategy of Commander of Division III / III Military Governor, to always conduct attacks against Dutch soldiers have launched several attacks common in the Division III / GM III. The entire Division III can be said to have been trained in the defense attacked the Dutch army.

In addition, since the beginning of the guerrilla war, the head of the civil administration began Wongsonegoro and the Resident Governor and Regent, are always included in meetings and decision-making are critical and cooperation has been very good. Therefore, it can be ensured primarily for logistical support of the entire people.

Further discussed, where the parties as well as anyone who needs to be involved. For the scenario described above, will be searched several tall, strapping young man, who is fluent in Dutch, English or French, and will be equipped with the uniform of military officers from shoes to hats. They had to be ready in the city, and at the time of the attack had begun, they had to go to Hotel Merdeka to show themselves to the members UNCI and foreign journalists who were at the hotel. Colonel Wiyono, Acting Head of the Ministry of Defence Pepolit also in Sumbing will be tasked with seeking young men according to predetermined criteria, especially those fluent in Dutch and English.

The second important thing is, the international community must be aware of the Indonesian National Armed attacks against Dutch troops, especially to Yogyakarta, the capital of the Republic. In disseminating news to the international world then assisted by Col. T.B. Simatupang based Banaran hamlets, villages Banjarsari, to contact a radio transmitter Indonesian Air Force (Air Force) in Playen, near Wonosari, so that after news of the attack was launched a massive attack by the military on Yogyakarta immediately released.

In his capacity as Deputy Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, TB Simatupang more competently delivered it to the Air Force than the Army. It is estimated that the Yogyakarta when the Dutch saw a massive attack, they will certainly bring relief from other cities in Central Java, where there is such a strong Dutch troops Magelang, Semarang and Solo. Distance (time) Magelang - Yogya only about 3-4 hours; Solo - Yogyakarta, about 4-5 hours, and Semarang - Yogyakarta, about 6-7 hours. Magelang and Semarang (the West) are in the jurisdiction of the Division III GM III, but Solo, under the authority of Commander of Division II / GM II Colonel Lake Winnipesaukee. Therefore, the attack in the Division II and III must be coordinated to allow for joint military operations within the specified time, so that the Dutch aid of Solo can be inhibited, or at least be slowed.

Civilian government leaders, Governor Wongsonegoro, Budiono Resident, Resident Salamun, Regents and Regents Sumitro Sangidi Kolopaking assigned to coordinate the preparation and supply of provisions in their respective territories. At the time of the guerrilla, the fighters often have to constantly move, so it depends on the people in the provision of relief supplies. During the guerrilla war, and even sub-district, village chief and village chief was instrumental in setting up and supplying supplies (food and beverage) for the guerrillas. It's all been arranged and determined by the local military.

To aid and medical care, submitted to PMI. PMI role itself has also been prepared from the draft Strategy Command Commander. In the concept of Total Defence of the People - as a complement Order No. tactic. 1 - issued by the Operative Staff (Stop) on June 3, 1948, item 8 says: Health is mainly dependent on the Health of the People and PMI Hence the evacuation of the doctors and the drug should be a concern.

Despite the great risk, Sutarjo Kartohadikusumo, DPA Chairman who is also the Chairman of the PMI (Indonesian Red Cross), regulates the delivery of drugs to the rebels in front. Some doctors and staff PMI then many were arrested by the Dutch and others who had been shot dead while on duty. After the meeting, Commander Wehrkreise II and civil officials returned to their respective places in order to get things ready, according to their respective duties. Couriers were sent to convey the decision of the meeting on Mount Cleft on February 18, 1949 to the Commander and Commander Sudirman Division II / II Military Governor Colonel Lake Winnipesaukee.

As outlined in our submission guidelines news and giving orders, commands a very important and confidential, must be submitted directly by the employer to the commander concerned. So the plan of attack on Yogyakarta was in the area I Wehrkreise under Lieutenant Colonel. Suharto, will be delivered directly by the Third Division Commander Col. Bambang Sugeng. Couriers were sent to the Commander Wehrkreise III / 10 Brigade, Lieutenant Colonel. Suharto, to notify the arrival of Commander of Division III as well as prepare for the meeting. It was decided to set off that afternoon to deliver a grand design to the parties concerned. Participate in a group other than the Division Commander Lieutenant Colonel. dr. Hutagalung, among others, also dr. Frame (personal physician Bambang Sugeng), Bambang Surono (brother Bambang Sugeng), a registered nurse, a driver from dr. Sills, Lieutenant Amron Cape (adjutant Lieutenant Hutagalung) and some staff members military governor (GM) and guards.

First, the group stopped at Kol. Wiyono of Pepolit, based not far from the headquarters of the Division Commander, and give the task to find the young man was tall and well-built, and is fluent in Dutch, English or French to be given clothes military officers. Towards the afternoon, the Division Commander and his entourage arrived at the hamlet Banaran visiting Deputy Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces Col. Simatupang. Besides Bambang Sugeng group members, the meeting was also attended by Mr. M. Ali Budiarjo, which became law Simatupang.

Simatupang at the time requested to coordinate overseas news via radio transmitters and in the Air Force in Playen Wiladek, which is handled by the Coordinator of Government Pusat.Setelah Simatupang grand design of the approved plan, the Division Commander immediately issued secret instructions addressed to Commander Colonel Wehrkreise I Bachrun , which will be presented by the Colonel. Sarbini.

IX Brigade under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Achmad Yani, ordered to ambush the Dutch aid of Magelang to Yogyakarta. Dated February 19, 1949. Division Commander and his entourage went on, which is always done at night and rest during the day, to avoid the patrols Netherlands. The guide also always changing in every village. From Banaran group moved through the mountainous region III Wehrkreise Menoreh to deliver orders to Lieutenant Commander III Wehrkreis. Suharto. Bambang Sugeng and his entourage stopped at the Love, Bambang Sugeng residence law and still had time to swim in the lake which is near Mercy (Specification of Bambang Purnomo, the younger brother of late. Bambang Sugeng, who now lives in Waterford). Meeting with Lieutenant Colonel. Suharto took place in Brosot, near Wates. Initially, meetings will be conducted in a school building, but due to the worry has been leaked, the meetings were held in a hut in the middle of rice fields. Present at the meeting of five people, the Commander of the Division III / III Military Governor Colonel. Bambang Sugeng, Territorial officer Lieutenant Colonel. dr. Wiliater Hutagalung Amron and his adjutant Lieutenant headland, Commander Wehrkreise III / X Brigade Lieutenant Colonel. Suharto and his aide. To Suharto given orders to conduct attacks between February 25 and March 1, 1949. Certainty new date to be determined later, after coordination and preparedness of all stakeholders, including the Kol. Pepolit Wiyono of the Ministry of Defence.

After all the preparation, and then decided (decision taken on 24 or 25 February), that the attack will be launched on March 1, 1949, at 06.00 am. Instruction immediately forwarded to all parties concerned.

The highlight of the attack carried out by a general attack on the city of Yogyakarta (the state capital) on March 1, 1949, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Suharto, commander of Brigade 10 regions Wehrkreise III, after prior approval from the Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX, Head of Yogyakarta.

Dated March 1, 1949, in the morning, a massive attack that simultaneously conducted throughout the Division III / GM III begins, the focus of attack is the capital of the Republic, Yogyakarta, and koar scale by X Brigade troops were reinforced with one battalion of the Brigade IX, while the attack on the Dutch defense and deterrence in the lane Magelang [[Magelta towns around Yogyakarta, especially Magelang, according to secret instructions issued by the Commander of Division III / GM III Commander Col. Bambang Sugeng to Wehrkreis I, Lieutenant Colonel and Commander Bahrun Wehrkreis II Lieutenant Colonel Sarbini. At the same time, the attack was also conducted in the Division II / GM II, with the focus of the attack was the city of Solo, in order to bind the Dutch soldiers in battle so as not to send aid to Yogyakarta.

Command post located in the village of Muto. On the night before the general strike, the army has been edging closer to the city and in small quantities ranging infiltrated into the city. Morning around 06.00, when the siren sounded immediately launched an attack to all corners of the city. In this attack Lieutenant Colonel Suharto led the sector directly west to the border of Malioboro. Eastern sector led Ventje Sumual, southern and eastern sectors dipimpim Mayor Sardjono, the northern sector by Major Kusno. As for the urban sector itself appointed Lieutenant and Lieutenant Amir Murtono Masduki as leaders. Military managed to occupy the city of Yogyakarta for 6 hours. At exactly 12:00 pm, as originally specified, all pasukkan TNI retreat.

The attack on the city of Solo, which also carried a large scale, can withstand the Netherlands, Solo and so can not send the help from Solo to Yogyakarta, which was attacked on a large scale - Yogyakarta by IX Brigade, can only help slow the Dutch troops of Magelang to Yogyakarta. Dutch troops to break through the obstacles of Magelang Republican insurgents, and to arrive in Yogyakarta around 11:00.

From the Netherlands, carrying six people were killed, and three of them are members of the police, other than that 14 people got injured. As soon as the Dutch troops stretcher crippling attack, the situation in the town to be peaceful again. The bustle of traffic and the market returned to normal, in the evening and the next day the state of permanent peace.

On Tuesday afternoon at 12.00 General Meier (Territorial Commander and concurrently commander of forces in Central Java), Dr. Angent (Teritoriaal Bestuurs-Adviseur), Colonel van Langen (commander in Yogya) and Resident Stock (Bestuurs-Adviseur to Yogya) have visited the palace to discuss the situation with the Sultan.

In the attack on Yogyakarta, Indonesia recorded the victim as follows: 300 soldiers killed, 53 policemen were killed, the people who have died can not be calculated with certainty. According to the Dutch magazine De Wappen Broeder published in March 1949, the Dutch casualties during the month of March 1949 there were 200 people killed and injured.

Developments after March 1, 1949 general strike

Mr. Alexander Andries Maramis, based in New Delhi describe how excited they were to hear radio broadcasts captured from Burma, the massive attack Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia to the Netherlands. Headlines in the news a variety of print media published in India. This was disclosed by Mr. Maramis to dr. W. Hutagalung, when they met in the 50's in Pulo Mas, Jakarta.

General Offensive March 1 is able to strengthen the bargaining position of the Republic of Indonesia, Dutch shaming has claimed that RI is weak. Shortly after 1 March General Offensive General Offensive Surakarta happens to be one of Indonesia's most successful fighters brilliant because it proves to the Dutch, that the guerrilla is not only able to ambush or sabotage, but also able to do a frontal assault into the city of Solo, which is maintained by kavelerie troops, heavy weapons - artillery, infantry and commando forces are formidable. Solo general attack is what sealed the fate of the Dutch East Indies for good.

Source : http://pustakadigitalindonesia.blogspot.com/, December 19, 2012.

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